Persian Garden

by Sara Razavinejad

Persian garden or Iranian garden is a traditional style of garden designing that has influenced the art of garden design as far as India and Spain. persian gardens may originate as early as 4000 BCE.

The outline of Pasargadae (the capital of Achaemenid Empire), built around 500 BCE, is viewable today. The style of Persian gardens can be both formal and informal. The formal ones are the type found in front of palaces, and are geometric in their layout. For instance, Cyrus garden (the chahar bagh) and Taj Mahal in India. Examples of informal gardens are the family baghs found on the outskirts of major Iranian cities.

persian garden

Persian Garden has some features that separate it from other gardens. Which are:
1) They are quadrant and water flows in them.
2) The water ditches make a cross.
3) Persian Gardens are designed in a way that each element, such as walls, trees and ... , plays a role in harnessing the sunlight.
4)Most of them are surrounded by walls and have a symmetrical design.
5)The most important feature: they are built in a way to be a representation of Eden and that's because of their trees, trellises and flowers.

persian garden designThe word "paradise" comes from the Old Iranian word for exceptional gardens (pairi-daeza, paridiz). The description of the Garden of Eden as paradise is derived from the Persian Avestan pairi-daeza, and some would say, was located in the northern Iranian Zagros mountains. The Hanging Gardens of Babylon, as one of the seven wonders of the world, were built based on the Median (western Iranian) gardens in the Zagros mountains.
To understand the true significance of the Persian gardens, the baghs, both informal and formal, it is necessary to put them in the context of the surrounding countryside of Iran and Central Asia where lands given to extremes in climate.
Nowadays the property includes nine gardens which are registered in UNESCO world heritages. Each garden contains sufficient elements to concur to express the Outstanding Universal Value of the series, while retaining principles that have their roots in the times of Cyrus the Great, 6th century BC.
1) Pasargad Garden at Pasargadae, Iran
2) Chehel Sotoun, Isfahan, Iran
3) Fin Garden, Kashan, Iran
4) Eram Garden, Shiraz, Iran
5) Shazdeh Garden, Mahan, Kerman Province, Iran
6) Dolatabad Garden, Yazd, Iran
7) Abbasabad Garden, Abbasabad, Mazandaran, Iran
8) Akbarieh Garden. South Khorasan Province, Iran
9) Pahlevanpour Garden Iran

Isfahan chaharbagh Paradise Garden carpet

Persian gardens have been evolved through the history of Persian Empire in regard to the culture and beliefs of the society. The philosophical design concept of Persian gardens is believed to be rooted in the four sacred elements of water, wind, fire and soil (Zoroastrian division of the universe into four parts, four seasons or the four elements). The geometrical design of Persian gardens has been reflected in Persian carpets, potteries and visual arts.

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